Cialdini   R. B. (2006) has listed the six universal truths of influence as the following:

(1) Reciprocity: – People are obligated to give back to others the form of behaviour they get. In the context of obligations, people say yes to those they owe. For instance, a card sent to you on your birthday pushes you towards returning similar favor when the senders’ birthday approaches.

(2) Scarcity: – People are more motivated into action by the idea of losing an advantage than gaining it. Any item that is scarce is most valued and has more influence than numerous ones around us- the type people call “pure water”.

(3) Consistency: – Consistent people are influential people than unstable personalities. They become the rallying point for the advertisement of ideas and opinions. The late human rights activist, Chief Gani Fawehimi (SAN) was consistent and dogged in his fight against social injustice and repressive activities of political leaders.  Consistency breeds trust and this allows people to interact in efficient and effective ways.

(4) Liking/Rapport: – Making friends is an art. A man who easily makes friends with people is someone who can influence others. Cialdini R.B.  says “people prefer to do business with those they like and those who are like them” it is necessary when establishing rapport for people to identify areas of similarities and build on them to strengthen the bond of friendship.

(5) Authority: This is based on the demonstration of the knowledge of the organisation’s products and services and the ability of the employees to convince their customers. Customers who have experienced the inherent benefits of products in very unique ways become very loyal to the product and recommend its usage to others. Testimonials from these customers or experts increase credibility, trials and patronage

(6) Consensus: This is a crucial factor for gaining trust and influence.



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